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Furthermore, rubies can show color changes—though this occurs very rarely—as well as chatoyancy or the "cat's eye" effect.
Generally, gemstone-quality corundum in all shades of red, including pink, are called rubies. Often, the distinction between ruby and pink sapphire is not clear and can be debated.
That region has produced some exceptional rubies, however in recent years few good rubies have been found.
In central Myanmar, the area of Mong Hsu began producing rubies during the s and rapidly became the world's main ruby mining area.
The most recently found ruby deposit in Myanmar is in Namya Namyazeik located in the northern state of Kachin. The Republic of Macedonia is the only country in mainland Europe to have naturally occurring rubies.
They can mainly be found around the city of Prilep. Macedonian rubies have a unique raspberry color.
The ruby is also included on the Macedonian coat of arms. Spinel , another red gemstone, is sometimes found along with rubies in the same gem gravel or marble.
Red spinels may be mistaken for rubies by those lacking experience with gems. However, the finest red spinels can have values approaching that of an average ruby.
Rubies, as with other gemstones, are graded using criteria known as the four Cs, namely color, cut, clarity and carat weight.
Rubies are also evaluated on the basis of their geographic origin. In the evaluation of colored gemstones, color is the most important factor.
Color divides into three components: Hue refers to color as we normally use the term. Transparent gemstones occur in the pure spectral hues of red, orange, yellow, green, blue, violet.
Ruby is defined to be red. All other hues of the gem species corundum are called sapphire. Ruby may exhibit a range of secondary hues, including orange, purple, violet, and pink.
The finest ruby is described as being a vivid medium-dark toned red. Secondary hues add an additional complication.
Pink, orange, and purple are the normal secondary hues in ruby. Of the three, purple is preferred because it reinforces the red, making it appear richer.
When a purplish-red ruby is set in yellow, the yellow neutralizes its complement blue, leaving the stone appearing to be pure red in the setting.
Improving the quality of gemstones by treating them is common practice. Some treatments are used in almost all cases and are therefore considered acceptable.
During the late s, a large supply of low-cost materials caused a sudden surge in supply of heat-treated rubies, leading to a downward pressure on ruby prices.
Improvements used include color alteration, improving transparency by dissolving rutile inclusions, healing of fractures cracks or even completely filling them.
The most common treatment is the application of heat. Most rubies at the lower end of the market are heat treated to improve color, remove purple tinge , blue patches, and silk.
The silk is partially broken, and the color is improved. Another treatment, which has become more frequent in recent years, is lead glass filling.
Filling the fractures inside the ruby with lead glass or a similar material dramatically improves the transparency of the stone, making previously unsuitable rubies fit for applications in jewelry.
If a color needs to be added, the glass powder can be "enhanced" with copper or other metal oxides as well as elements such as sodium, calcium, potassium etc.
The second heating process can be repeated three to four times, even applying different mixtures. The treatment can identified by noting bubbles in cavities and fractures using a 10x loupe.
In , Gaudin made the first synthetic rubies by fusing potash alum at a high temperature with a little chromium as a pigment.
In , Ebelmen made white sapphire by fusing alumina in boric acid. In , Frenic and Freil made crystal corundum from which small stones could be cut.
Frimy and Auguste Verneuil manufactured artificial ruby by fusing BaF 2 and Al 2 O 3 with a little chromium at red heat. In , Verneuil announced he could produce synthetic rubies on a commercial scale using this flame fusion process.
Other processes in which synthetic rubies can be produced are through Czochralski's pulling process , flux process, and the hydrothermal process.
Most synthetic rubies originate from flame fusion, due to the low costs involved. Synthetic rubies may have no imperfections visible to the naked eye but magnification may reveal curves, striae and gas bubbles.
The fewer the number and the less obvious the imperfections, the more valuable the ruby is; unless there are no imperfections i. Dopants are added to some manufactured rubies so they can be identified as synthetic, but most need gemological testing to determine their origin.
Synthetic rubies have technological uses as well as gemological ones. Rods of synthetic ruby are used to make ruby lasers and masers. The first working laser was made by Theodore H.
Ruby lasers are still in use. Rubies are also used in applications where high hardness is required such as at wear exposed locations in modern mechanical clockworks, or as scanning probe tips in a coordinate measuring machine.
Imitation rubies are also marketed. Red spinels , red garnets , and colored glass have been falsely claimed to be rubies.
Imitations go back to Roman times and already in the 17th century techniques were developed to color foil red—by burning scarlet wool in the bottom part of the furnace—which was then placed under the imitation stone.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the mineral or gem. For other uses, see Ruby disambiguation. Natural ruby crystals from Winza , Tanzania.
Artificial ruby under a normal light top and under a green laser light bottom. Red light is emitted. Gemology and Jewelry portal. Archived from the original on March 21, Retrieved March 28, Archived from the original on May 2,